Hypertensive crisis is a severe form of arterial hypertension. It can occur at any time. It is more common in women than in men. The cause of the occurrence lies in a violation of the regulation of blood pressure. If arterial hypertension is common in 40% of the population, then only in 1% of cases there may be a sudden jump from the baseline indicators, which leads to a sharp deterioration in well-being with a high risk of death.
What exactly are the symptoms of a hypertensive crisis, not only hypertensive patients, but also their loved ones should know. Normal and elevated blood pressure indicators are individual for each person. When a crisis occurs, there are signs of a violation of the cerebral or coronary blood supply.
Prevention of a hypertensive crisis consists in regular intake of antihypertensive drugs. This allows you to monitor the normal level of pressure and the general condition of the patient. In violation of medical recommendations and concomitant factors, there is a violation of the function of blood pressure regulation, which becomes the main cause of the pathological condition. A significant increase in pressure to values greater than 180-240 mm Hg poses a threat to health and life.
Symptoms and signs of their manifestation
When a hypertensive crisis occurs , the symptoms are as follows:
nausea, vomiting, suffocation;
convulsions and loss of consciousness;
clouding of consciousness and impaired speech, vision;
heart pain and palpitations;
trembling, sweating, chills;
feeling of lack of air;
copious loose stools are possible.
Do you have symptoms of a hypertensive crisis?
Causes of the development of a serious condition and an increase in blood pressure
Hypertensive crisis causes have both single and complex:
changing weather conditions;
consumption of alcoholic beverages;
drinking a lot of coffee;
cancellation of antihypertensive drugs;
stress and depressive states;
inadequate treatment of arterial hypertension.
Types of pathology
Types of hypertensive crisis are classified depending on the manifestation of symptoms. Medical care is selected individually according to indications and clinical manifestations. Hypertensive crisis of type I and II, complicated and uncomplicated form – types of pathology. Hyperkinetic crisis or type I is characterized by rapid development. There is an acute headache and dizziness, nausea, vomiting. The condition is close to fainting. Blood pressure rises higher than 200 mmHg. (systolic – upper), which causes red spots in the face, neck, chest, a feeling of heat, tachycardia, moist skin.
Hypokinetic crisis or type II occurs when the treatment regimen or rhythm of life is disrupted in patients with stage III hypertension. The deterioration of well-being develops more slowly, although the intensity remains noticeable. The degree of headache increases exponentially. Diastolic (lower) pressure remains in the range of 140-160 mm Hg. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, lethargy, impaired vision and hearing, tense pulse.
Complicated hypertensive crisis has several development vectors, which affects the type of complications. There are such subspecies: coronary, asthmatic, cerebral. Against this background, pulmonary edema or cardiac asthma, acute left ventricular failure may develop. Disorders of cerebral circulation, ischemic stroke and other pathologies may occur. Uncomplicated hypertensive crisis requires pressure correction in the next day, but it has an important nuance – there is no risk of damage to target organs.
Diagnosis after diagnosis
The diagnosis of a hypertensive crisis is selected depending on the symptoms and type of pathology. Patients are prescribed an ECG. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a CT scan of the brain is prescribed. This measure is necessary to exclude edema. The chest organs are targets for high blood pressure, so control is carried out using radiography. Diagnosis is necessary for the correct determination of the diagnosis, the form of the crisis.
The best prevention of a hypertensive crisis is awareness of the peculiarities of the occurrence of seizures, understanding how the increase in blood pressure occurs and the causes of this phenomenon.
Timely diagnosis and interaction with a doctor, the implementation of medical recommendations is an opportunity to prevent the development of crises of varying degrees. Hypertension can be controlled if:
exclude the use of alcohol;
reduce salt intake to 5 g per day;
normalize body weight;
adhere to antihypertensive therapy;
reduce stress levels;
Information about the diagnosis and treatment of patients
Regardless of what causes a hypertensive crisis in a man or a woman, diagnosis is in the first place to determine the further course of treatment. Symptoms may coincide with other pathological conditions. Diagnosis of a hypertensive crisis includes the following procedures and studies:
ECG, CT, radiography;
heart rate measurement.
The doctor needs to collect a detailed medical history of the patient’s condition. When the seizures began, the frequency of their occurrence, symptoms, whether the patient receives regular antihypertensive therapy, what methods were used to lower blood pressure, whether there was an experience of self-relief of the crisis, the presence of concomitant diseases – the main information for the doctor during the diagnosis.
Treatment and its features Hypertensive crisis
Treatment for hypertensive crisis is prescribed depending on the anamnesis and the presence of other acute conditions or chronic pathologies (heart percussion, auscultation of the heart, lungs, large vessels, hemorrhagic stroke, renal failure, severe myocardial ischemia). At the time of the attack, the patient needs medical attention. It consists in lowering blood pressure.
After that, drug therapy is prescribed. When prescribing drugs, it is important that they act after a maximum of 20-30 minutes, and the effect lasts at least 4-6 hours. In the treatment of crises, the danger is the occurrence of uncontrolled hypotension. For this reason, self-medication with such a diagnosis carries the risk of drug collapse. Special medical supervision is necessary for patients with a history of concomitant diseases. It is important to understand that with proper treatment of hypertension, crises occur extremely rarely.